Oral Candidiasis is a fungal infection of the mouth. Its also know by other names such as Oral Candidosis, Oral Thrush, Candidial Stomatitis etc. Its not a contagious infection and can easily be treated by anti-fungal medications.
The most common organism that is said to cause this is “Cadida Albicans”. Although, its naturally found in the mouths of about 50% of the population. But when this species becomes pathogenic and invade host tissues, oral candidiasis can occur. This sudden change in an otherwise normally harmless organism is due to many factors which alter the host’s immunity.
There are various version of Candidiasis. Traditionally, they were classified using the Lehner System, originally decribed in the 1960s into acute and chronic forms. The various types of classification are enumerated below.
By appearance, there are 3 types of recognized candidiasis which are “Pseudomembranous”, “Erythematous” and “Hyperplastic”.
This is the classical form of oral candidiasis, commonly referred to as thrush. It can happen in any part of the mouth but generally happens over the tongue. Overall, this is th emost common type of oral candidiasis, accounting for about 35% of oral candidiasis. It is easily characterized by a coat of white slough that can easily be wiped away. It can sometimes have a bleeding mucosa (mucous membrane ) beneath it. The white pseudomembrane is also sometimes called as “curdled milk” or “cottage cheese”. The white material is made up of debris, fibrin and yeast infected epithelium layer.
Due to the fact that an erythematous surface is revealed beneath the pseudomembranes, some consider pseudomembranous candidiasis and erythematous candidiasis stages of the same entity.
This type of cadidiasis appears as reddish, raw looking lesion. It may precede the formation of a pseudomembrane, be left when the membrane is removed, or arise anew. It generally appears on the dorsum or palate of the tongue. Acute erythematous candidiasis usually occurs on the dorsum of the tongue in persons taking long term corticosteroids or antibiotics, but occasionally it can occur after only a few days of using a topical antibiotic. This is usually termed “antibiotic sore mouth”, “antibiotic sore tongue” or “antibiotic induced stomatitis” because it is commonly painful as well as red.
Also known as “nodular candidiasis”. There most common symptom is the presence of a white plaque that does not wash off or rub off. This type of candidiasis is very rare and occurs in only about 5% of the cases. The most common region where it affects the mouth is “buccal mucosa”, which exists on both sides of the mouth.
2. Associated Lesions
These types of lesions are confined to the mouth. They have mutiple number of causes. Both bacteria and Candida species may be involed in these lesions. These lesions cannot be removed just by using anti-fungal therapy but rather predisposing factors must be addressed. Some well known lesion types are as follows, Angular Cheilitis, Denture Stomatitis, Median Rhomboid Glossititis, Linear Gingival Erythema.
Angular Cheilitis is also known as “perleche.” Cheilitis is characterized by erythema and scaling of the lips. When called “angular,” it refers to the corners of the lips (commissures of the mouth). Saliva pools in these areas. The most common cause of angular cheilitis is candida. Another term is perioral cheilocandidiasis. Angular cheilitis is more common in patients who wear dentures of appliances. Causes other than candida include chronic lip licking, sun exposure and sodium lauryth sulfate preservative in some toothpastes.
This is a common condition where mild inflammation and redness of the oral mucous membrane occurs beneath a denture. In about 90% of cases, Candida species are involved. This is normally a harmless component of the oral microbiota in many people. Denture-related stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidiasis (a yeast infection of the mouth).
Median Rhomboid Glossitis
This is an elliptical or rhomboid lesion in the center of the dorsal tongue, just anterior (in front) of the circumvallate papillae. The area is depapillated, reddened and rarely painful. There is frequently Candida species in the lesion, sometimes mixed with bacteria.
Linear Gingivial Erythema
This is a localized or generalized, linear band of erythematous gingivitis (inflammation of the gums). It was first observed in HIV infected individuals and termed “HIV-gingivitis”, but the condition is not confined to this group. Candida species are involved, and in some cases the lesion responds to antifungal therapy, but it is thought that other factors exist, such as oral hygiene and human herpesviruses. This condition can develop into necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis.
The symptoms are dependent upon the type of candidiasis. Generally there are no symptoms apart from the appearance of symptoms. However there can be a burning sensation in some cases which is why it can be misdiagnosed as burning mouth syndrome as well. This is true for erythematous candidiasis, whereas hyperplastic entirely asymptomatic. In rare cases there can also be dysphagia, which indicates candidiasis involving the esophagus as well as the mouth. The trachea and larynx may also be involved where there is oral candidiasis and this may cause hoarseness of the voice.
The main reason behind this anomaly is when Candidiasis Albicans starts multiplying rapidly. Normally the immune system fights this off using good microorganisms to keep the bad ones under control. When this balance breaks, harmful fungi being to multiply. This leads to Oral Thrush. Certain other factors like Cancer treatment including chemotherapy destroys the healthy cells and makes people more susceptible to oral thrush.
Diseases that attack your immune system, such as HIV, AIDS, and leukemia, also increase your risk for oral thrush. Diabetes, another illness that affects your immune system, can contribute to oral thrush as well. If you have uncontrolled diabetes, you likely have a high level of sugar in your saliva. It’s thought that C. albicans can then use this extra sugar to fuel its growth in your mouth.
In newborns, oral thrush can be contracted at birth. The same fungus that causes oral thrush also causes yeast infections, so pregnant women with a vaginal yeast infection can pass the infection on to their baby during delivery
Your doctor will probably be able to diagnose oral thrush simply by examining your mouth and tongue for the characteristic white bumps.
In some cases, your doctor may take a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. A biopsy involves scraping off a very small portion of a bump in the mouth. The sample is then sent to a laboratory, where it will be tested for the presence of C. albicans.
If your esophagus has become infected with oral thrush, your doctor likely will perform more procedures to ensure an accurate diagnosis. These can include a throat culture and an endoscopy.
During a throat culture, your doctor will use a cotton swab to take a tissue sample from the back of your throat. The sample will then be sent to a laboratory for analysis.
Endoscopy involves the use of an endoscope, which is a thin tube with an attached light and camera. Your doctor will insert the endoscope through your mouth and into your esophagus to examine the affected area. They may also remove a sample of tissue for inspection.
Home Remedies For Oral Candidiasis
We have grouped some of the best home remedies for oral candidiasis here for you. Use these for the best results and treatment.
Cinnamon has been discovered and proven to be positive in the fight against thrush in the mouth and candida albicans thanks to its powerful antiparasitic, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Researchers also discovered that the anticandidal activity created when using cinnamon oil can help to fight against and beat off other types of Candida yeast as well. One of the best home remedies for oral candidiasis.
Cranberry contains a compound named “arbutin” that can help to kill Candida albicans effectively. You just need to take cranberry tablets 2 – 3 times per day, or if the problem is about your child’s thrush, give him/her fresh cranberries. You can also consume a glass of fresh, unsweetened cranberry juice 2 – 3 times on a daily basis for about 2 – 3 weeks to get rid of Candida yeast. One of the best home remedies for oral candidiasis.
Oregano oil has a compound named “carvacrol”, which has been discovered and proven to be able to inhibit the growth of the yeast leading to the oral thrush issue. Scientific research also showed that the antimicrobial and antifungal agents of oregano oil can work effectively in preventing as well as curing oral thrush in children and adults.
Coconut oil can work effectively as an useful home remedy for candidiasis that can help to show people how to treat oral thrush in infants at home thanks to its content of medium-chain fatty acids, such as capric acid, caprylic, and lauric. Researchers recently indicated that these saturated fatty acids contain abundant antimicrobial properties that can help to beat off the oral thrush fungi without leading to the overgrowth of Candida strains that are more resistant to other antifungal remedies.
Get a handful of sauropus androgynus, wash, and then rinse with cool boiled water. Use a mortar to mill the sauropus androgynus, and then use a towel to dip in the juice of the sauropus androgynous and wipe the baby’s tongue. This method is very popular in treating baby’s oral thrush so that many people, especially Asian people usually use this natural home remedy for oral candidiasis. Currently, many mothers often use the juice of sauropus androgynus to cure the early period furry tongue in infants effectively.
Use these simple home remedies for oral candidiasis for immediate relief. All the methods provided here are easy to use and simple to follow.